Sunday, September 09, 2018

CCNA exam app for iOS/iPhone updated has recently up dated CCNA app for iOS, iPhone, and iPad to have additional question types and revised layout. The User Interface (UI) has been updated thoroughly to provide better user experience. A few of the knownn bugs have been fixed too.

Download the app by going to the URL given below:

Android app is available for use with Android mobiles,

Other apps available include CCENT, CCNP Switch, CCNP Route, CCDA, CCNA Security, and others. Check out the product directory at for complete list of available practice tests. recently updated CBT test engine to include 90 CCNA questions free of cost on using the CBT exam engine. Check it out here:

Other exams, like A+ Essentials, Security+, Server+ are also available with exam engine.

Friday, June 29, 2018

Cisco CCENT Exam Cram released CCENT (short for Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician) exam cram for smash preparation of CCENT. The exam notes consists of 50+ pages with most essentials information for passing the exam.
The exam objectives are given as below:
  • 1.0 Network Fundamentals 20%
  • 2.0 LAN Switching Fundamentals 26%
  • 3.0 Routing Fundamentals 25%
  • 4.0 Infrastructure Services 15%
  • 5.0 Infrastructure Maintenance 14%
 The CCENT practice tests along with CCENT exam cram and CCENT cheat sheets provide a good approach for passing the exam. Check it out.

Monday, May 14, 2018

Article VLANs Fundamentals

Traditionally, a Local Area Network (LAN) is a network of computers located within the same geographical area. Today, Local Area Networks are defined as a single broadcast domain. This means that if a host broadcasts information on LAN, the broadcast will be received by every other host on the same LAN. Broadcasts are prevented from leaving a LAN by using Layer-3 addressing, provided by a router or a layer-3 switch. The disadvantage of using routers (in comparison with L3 switch) is that they normally take more time to process incoming packets.   Given below are some of the advantages of VLANs:

Check out the article on VLAN fundamentals at blog site:

More articles here:

Wednesday, February 28, 2018 CCNA Netsim Update, a leading network simulator software provider, recently updated CCNA Netsim to provide additional features including 1) GUI based designer displays the selected router/switch diagram along with available interfaces, 2) Granularity in the diagram design window so that it provides a better user experience, 3. addition of several more commands.

Prior to this release, a user wouldn't be knowing off-hand the physical diagram of the device through the program interface.Additionally, several router commands had been added to the command set. With this addition, most of the labs related to CCENT/CCNA could be covered. The software contains several labs for hands-on preparation.
Download free trial version of the software from the product home page. The software may be procured using program interface and use online activation for unlocking the full version of the software.

About Network Simulator with Designer for CCNA®: CCNA Netsim is a software based tool to simulate router network over the Internet or intranet using IOS devices such as routers and switches. Dozens of labs have been provided for practice and user can develop their own labs using drag and drop feature. You may look at the screenshots by going to the product page here:

CCNA Labs that have been provided are listed online for quick review along with the ios commands available for virtual router simulator.
The routersim has detailed help manual, providing context sensitive help.
About Provides network simulators for various manufacturers, including Cisco and Juniper. The netsim provides a virtual environment without having to use the real physical hardare. Other products available include JNCIA network simulator with designer, A+ and Net+ labsim.

Disclaimer: is not associated or affiliated with Cisco Systems or Comptia. CCNA® is a trademark of Cisco® Systesm and duly acknowledged.

Friday, December 22, 2017 Updates CCNA NetSim for VPN and HSRP Labs released a thorough update to their flagship software, Network Simulator with Designer for CCNA® , to include functionality for the following:
  • Site to Site VPN configuration between routers
  • FHRP configuration
VPN (Virtual Private Network) is widely used these days for security and confidentiality of communication between hosts. The two main types of VPN are Site-to-site VPN and Remote-to-Site VPN. In Site-to-site VPN, a secure tunnel is formed between two peers within the communication channel. An example configuration scenario is shown in the figure below:
Photo Courtesy:, a leading networking equipment manufacturer.

             As may seen in the exhibit, the VPN is configured between two routers. A site-to-site VPN is also called router-to-router VPN. The hosts on LAN are unaware of the VPN between routers V1 and V2. However, all the communication between routers V1 and V2 moves securely over OpenVPN tunnel.

               You typically need a NAT (Network Address Translation) to translate internal IP address to external IP address and vice versa (for incoming traffic). The same thing is done at router V2 also. The word “tunnel” may be a bit misleading some times. Note that there is no route and bandwidth allocated between the routers when a tunnel is formed. A VPN typically secures the communication channel but not the route or bandwidth. A VPN connections use 1) Encapsulation 2) Authentication, and 3) Data encryption.

           In Encapsulation, user data (i.e. TCP/IP packets) is wrapped around by using encapsulation protocol such as GRE, IPsec, L2F, PPTP,  or L2TP. The encapsulated data packets are again wrapped inside carrier protocol packet, and then routed across the public network.
          For site-to-site VPNs, the encapsulating protocol is usually IPsec or GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation).  For remote-access VPNs, tunneling normally takes place using PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol). PPP tunneling will use one of PPTP, L2TP or L2F.

         When using site-to-site VPN, any user can access remote site from any of the computers inside the firewall (local network). For this purpose, one needs to configure AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting), so that one needs to authenticate to access any resources at the other end of the VPN tunnel to restrict user access.

          Remote access VPN is typically used with home and mobile users to connect to the corporate office. For example, a mobile traveler can connect to the Corporate head quarters using his laptop computer securely using a public Wi-Fi connection. Please see the figure below:
Photo courtesy:, a leading networking equipment manufacturer.

        As seen in the figure, a remote user communicates with the sever securely over VPN tunnel. All the user information, login credentials, etc. are encrypted when using VPN tunnel. In remote access VPN, usually, a client is installed on the remote user’s computer. Alternatively, the remote user uses SSL enabled browser session to communicate with the corporate network (shown as Private Network in the figure)

FHRP (First Hop Redundancy Protocol): Usually, when a subscriber connects to an ISP using Wi-Fi router, he will have single point of failure. i.e. if the router fails, the connection to the Internet fails. FHRP allows redundancy or a fail over mechanism, thus ensuring that there is no single point of failure for a subscriber to the Internet. There are several  protocol defined for FHRP, popular among these are: HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP.
HSRP, short for Hot Standby Router Protocol, is a Cisco proprietary protocol, and supported by most of the Cisco routers.
A simple HSRP configuration is shown in the figure. In HSRP, one router acts as an Active router and the other as Standby router. There can be more than two routers in HSRP configuration, however, only one router is put in Standby state using a selection criteria. HSRP routers may be assigned “Priority” so that a network admin can choose which router has be in HSRP Active state and which has to be in Standby state.

VRRP, short for Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol, is a standards based protocol. It is quite similar to HSRP in configuration and functionality.

GLBP, short for Gateway Load Balancing Protocol, is slightly advanced, in the sense, that it supports load balancing by default. Otherwise, it is similar to other two redundancy protocols. CCNA Netsim, offers a virtual networking environment, where in, one can create a network with Cisco(R) routers, switches, and other networking elements and experiment. The software has a GUI based designer that allows drag-n-drop functionality for designing one’s own network. Several labs on HSRP, and site-to-site VPN have been added for hands-on practice. The software is intended for learning purpose with limited set of commands support.

List of available CCNA labs may be viewed by going to the product page. You may download the free demo version of the software by going to the product download page.

Disclaimer: is not associated nor affiliated with Cisco Systems, or Brocade. Cisco®, CCNA® are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, and Brocade® is trademark of Brocade/Broadcom Limited and duly recognized.

Saturday, November 04, 2017 Releases CCNA Cheat Sheets - Thoroughly Revised, released CCNA Cheat Sheets for candidates preparing for Cisco CCNA (R). The cheat sheets consist of 50-odd pages covering majority of the exam objectives. The cram notes is organized in an easy to read manner so that students can use the same for last minute review. For thorough understanding, chapter-end scenario questions (mostly troubleshooting type) have been added.

The topics covered in the exam cram notes include TCP/IP vs. OSI model, IP v4 subnetting, binary and decimal systems, network IP address planning, routing using RIP, EIGRP, OSPF and BGP, VLANs and VTP, extended, standard, and named Access Control Lists (ACLs), cloud services, network security using firewalls, STP protocol, Site to Site, and Remote to Site secure communication, and others.

Recent update of CCNA v3 includes several new topics such as IP v6, EIGRP for IPv6, OSPF v3 for IPv6, securing site to site and remote to site communications, and troubleshooting IPv6 networks.

The cheatsheets are updated from time to time to include most recent updates to the exam syllabus. You may download the exam cram notes from the link given below:


Some of the sample topics are given below:
The cram notes, once downloaded may be printed, if required.

Other exam cram notes available from include CCENt exam cram, ICND2 exam cram. Please visit the site for more info.

About CCNA: CCNA, short for Cisco Certified Network Associate, is the most widely knows certification in the area of internet communications. The cram notes is provided by, a brand website of Anand Software and Training. The Company is not associated with Cisco(R) or any other company. All trademarks are duly recognized. CCNA(R) is a trademark of Cisco(R) systems.

Tuesday, September 12, 2017 Computer Based Test Engine

Anand Software and Training, a private limited company, recently released Computer Based Test Engine. The software is useful for educators and organizations in assessing the students and/or employees using computer based tests. The CBT consists of two components:
  1. Computer Based Test - Author Module
  2. Computer Based Test - Exam Engine, and
1. Author Module:
The Author Module enables an author to perform several activities including the following:
  • Create, edit, and/or delete a test
  • Create Groups and Candidate profiles
  • Create, edit and/or delete questions.
Several types of questions are supported by the Computer Based Tester. These  include the following question types:
  • Multiple Choice Single Answers
  • Multiple Choice Multi Answer
  • Drag-n-drop 
  • Hotspot
  • Testlet type of questions, wherein a candidate has to answer two or more questions based on a given scenario.
The author module is free to download and use. Any number of tests may be created using author module. There is no limit on the number of questions in a particular test.

How the entire software works: The author creates one or more tests using the freely downloadable author test module. The author may create student profiles and the groups to which a student belongs. He may also assign the tests that belong to a particular group. By default, there is only one group to which all tests are assigned. After completion of test questions, groups (optional), and student profiles (optional), the author saves (exports) the exam info to a known location on the local or remote computer. Now, the examiner imports the test module from the computer on which the Exam Engine is installed. After importing, it is possible to administer the exam to the candidates.Detailed help files are available in the product website.

Note that even though the CBT Author Module is free to download and use, one needs to buy the Exam Engine.

Exam Engine: The CBT - Exam Engine provides the platform to administer exams to the candidates. Typically, the examiner imports the previously saved test module(s) and re initializes the exam engine. The exam engine is packed with several features. Given below are few of the important features:
  • Learn and exam modes to enable students to learn first and then assess their skills
  • Review the questions after test is completed
  • Timed
  • Configurable. Most of the features including the question weightage, number of questions in an exam, whether to provide back button, or to enable review of questions by the student, etc. are all configurable by the examiner. Even the study mode may be disabled by the examiner.
  • Adjustable font and night modes: Night mode flips the screen colors so that the display is soft on the human eyes even during night. Adjustable font enables a candidate to attend to the exam with comfort.
The CBT -Exam Engine is available in demo mode for assessing the usefulness of the software to a given requirement. Any queries may please be sent to cs at